By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major development has happened over the past few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Extra info for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)
The dimers l'ornl rows in < 1 1 ( ) > directions which run horizontally and vertically. There are two distinct single layer steps: (a) type SA single layer step and (b) type SB single layer step. Type SB steps have a higher energy per unit length. (From D. J. s. Rt'l'. Lett. 59, 1691 - ! ) Note that the dimer rows on the top layer are perpendicular to those on the layer beneath. Close examination reveals that there are two distinct types of step edges, one of which has a higher surface energy. Chadi (61) denotes the step with the dimers on the upper terrace oriented normal to the step edge as the S B step (Fig.
47) Usually the dominant oxidizing species is water vapor in a well-sealed system. The adsorption of water vapor is thought to be dissociative at room temperature, but the hydrogen is rapidly desorbed at the temperatures of interest. Thus the competing reaction can be written k2 H20 + * ~' O * + H 2. (48) We are interested in determining the conditions that lead to nearly oxygen-free surfaces. From Eqs. (46) and (47), I can write a rate equation for 0s;o, the fraction of surface sites occupied by oxygen d O s i o / d t - kiZH, o -- (kiZH, o + k2)Osi 0 (49) where ZH, o is the incident flux of water vapor.
The fit is excellent despite the wide range of pressure and temperature. It is interesting to note that this model appears to work well even for some growth systems where boundary layer diffusion and/or gas phase reactions might be important. This could be a consequence of the very short residence time in these reactors (142). Figure 20 shows the effect of germane flow on the germanium fraction in layers grown by UHV/CVD. In this system the reactant partial pressure is proportional to flow rate; the solid line shows that the expression in Eq.