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By Marc A. Williams

Pt. 1. floor amendment thoughts -- pt. 2. Analytical strategies and purposes

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An introduction to allergic inflammation 27 2 Williams MA, Porter M, Horton M, Guo J, Roman J, Williams D, Breysse P and Georas SN. (2007). Ambient particulate matter directs nonclassic dendritic cell activation and a mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-like cytokine response by naive CD4(+) T cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119: 488–97. 3 Williams MA, Cheadle C, Watkins T, Tailor A, Killedar SY, Breysse P, Barnes K and Georas SN. (2007). TLR2 and TLR4 as potential biomarkers of environmental particulate matter exposed human myeloid dendritic cells.

102) This is an attractive (yet ultimately over-simplistic) hypothesis since pathogenic microorganisms usually elicit a protective Th1-mediated immune response and the hygiene hypothesis postulated that dampened or insufficient Th1-mediated inflammatory responses may actually subvert host immunity to a more dominant and inappropriately hyperactive Th2-mediated and pro-allergic immune response. Thus the bias would switch from one of a predominantly cell-mediated immune response to one of an antibody-mediated response coupled with immunoglobulin isotype switching, for example enhanced production of IgE.

Pulmonary DC therefore are licensed with “executive decisions” with regard to mounting an appropriate protective immune response to pathogenic viruses or bacteria, or to ignore otherwise harmless exposures – a system that is compromised and ultimately fails in those individuals presenting with allergic asthma. As discussed briefly above, pulmonary DC are distributed throughout the lung and possess the unique ability to interdigitate the pulmonary epithelium, where they are able to extend cellular processes through or between the tight junctions of epithelial cells and sample the “external” environment present in the lumen of the conducting and lower airways.

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