By F. Makken (auth.), A. Uzo Mokwunye (eds.)
Tropical Africa escaped from the glaciers that coated the temperate elements of the realm in the course of the Ice Age. The legacy is that almost all of the dad or mum fabrics of the soils of tropical Africa are previous, hugely weathered and without bases and phosphate-bearing minerals. conventional farming platforms which have been particularly good and sustainable depended on lengthy fallow classes after one to 2 years of cropping to take care of the effective ability of the soils. lately and particularly in densely populated parts, a immense classification of 'landless' farmers have all started to domesticate marginal lands or to invade the 'forest reserves' thereby exacerbating the issues of land and environ psychological degradation. of soil fertility that would facilitate the construction of enough amounts of the primary holding a degree staples has turn into a big problem to agricultural scientists in tropical Africa. to extend the nutrient delivering energy of soils calls for the inputs of fertilizers. those may be natural or inorganic. The potency with which those externally provided inputs can raise agricultural construction and decrease soil and environmental deterioration relies at the skill of scientists to figure out the fitting forms and amounts of the goods to use to every soil, crop and cropping method in addition to the facility of farmers to obtain needful farm deal with ment skills.
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Extra info for Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa
The low wind speeds on the other hand apparently limit evapotranspiration and carbon dioxide exchange. Moderate wind speed and limited moisture content of the air during the dry season and early in the cropping season considerably increase the evaporative demand and moisture stress on crops. Large quantities of fine sand and dust 18 26 ~-----t---:~=4--r-:T~---:--t-:-=;::::::-t--r-1-14 10 18 Fig. 4. Spatial variability of rainfall shown as Isohyets measured on a 400 m grid over 500 ha. ISC. Sadore, Niger, 22 July 1986.
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Holtzman JS (1988) Setting priorities for agricultural development in Africa. Food Policy: p 320-322 Hong CW (1989) An attempt to convince farmers ofthe usefulness of improved crop production technology through a 'Let-them-test-it' approach in Northern Ghana workshop on fertilizer technology transfer, September 27-29 (1988) Lome, Togo, International Fertilizer Development Center Idachaba FS (1985) Redirecting agricultural research, extension and training in Sub-Saharan Africa Conference on agricultural policy and its relationship to food policy in Sub-Saharan Africa, West Berlin International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (1988) IlTA Medium term plan (1988-1993) Ibadan, Nigeria Joly C (1985) The FAO fertilizer program in Africa.
4 : looN 5"N Fig. 2, West Africa: Composite map of vegetation zones and duration of humid period (No, of months with precipitation Pot evapotranspiration), Adopted from Steiner  and Lawson , Legend - - - Number of months with rainfall;;;' Pot evapot; - - - Boundries of vegetation zones S = Sahel, SS = Sudan Savanna; .... NGS = Northern Guinea Savanna SGS = Southern Guinea Savanna; 0000 Northern Limit of Derived Savanna (DS), Rainfall: high variability in space and time Temporal and spatial variation in rainfall is a well marked characteristic of the West African region as a whole [27, Figs.