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By Jaakko Hintikka

I n order to understand appropriately what we're doing during this ebook it can be crucial to achieve that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the present perspectives. Our strategy will be defined by way of indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological rules present in theoretical linguistics, which I reflect on heavily inaccurate. Linguists often construe their activity at present as that of creating exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory method is inaccurate in numerous alternative ways. It presupposes that we will have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, often examples invented by means of the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp adequate to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we won't have both trustworthy direct entry to common linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me super doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impact been challenged by means of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few proof that the measure of unanimity between linguists within reason low by way of much less transparent circumstances, even in reference to such particularly uncomplicated questions as grammaticality (acceptability). as a result now we have attempted to depend extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that a number of the comparable linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately common features of humanly attainable grammars suppose that we will be able to have entry to them simply through their specific consequences.

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Moreover, (31) obviously deals with a perceptual situation. Indeed, uttering (31) can most naturally be accompanied by the gesture of pointing to the man in question. This virtually forces us to assume (ii). And what (iiii) says is that I am dealing with the man who as a matter of fact satisfies the descriptions, not with the way by which he satisfies it. Now it is our thesis that once assumptions paralleling (i)-(iii) are made in each case of what Donnellan calls the referential use of definite descriptions, Donnellan's entire theory of the "referential use II then becomes simply a special case of any reasonable theory of definite descriptions in intensional contexts developed ad hoc rather than as a part of such a general theory.

Reidel, Dordrecht, 1983. , 1982. Another link between GTS and the lexicalist-functionalist approach is our reliance on lexically triggered rules and on ordering principles governing them (special ordering principles). For instance, in GTS we do not have a single rule for subordinate questions, but separate rules for the different verbs (or other lexical elements) which take a construction with a subordinate question. PART II DEFINITE DESCRIPTIONS 1. Russell on Definite Descriptions Is there really a problem about the logic and semantics of definite descriptions, or the-phrases, as we shall also call them?

Thus neither Strawson's nor Donnellan's views occasion any changes in the basic ideas of Russell's theory. 3. Can We Localize Russell's Theory? The many attractive features of Russell's treatment of definite descriptions or, as we shall also call them, the-phrases, make its failure as an overall theory ever more so poignant. This failure needs few comments. Even if, pace Strawson, Russell's theory works perfectly when applied to definite descriptions like lithe present King of France", we have noted that it fails to account for the uses of the-phrases that pick up an earlier reference.

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