By Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi
Invasive electromyography is a well-established diagnostic software that has been used for many years by way of neurologists. lately, new and replacement units have more and more develop into to be had that allow analysis with out using needles. This constructing quarter of technology and the recent instruments haven't, in spite of the fact that, been sufficiently investigated in educational education. accordingly a niche exists among what technological know-how is making attainable and the competence bought in the course of graduate experiences. this convenient quantity has the purpose of filling this hole by way of offering the knowledge required by means of scientific practitioners in rehabilitation, activities, and occupational future health in addition to via rehabilitation therapists, ergonomists, and game coaches. The options which are provided and defined may also help in tracking and recording alterations, comparing the effectiveness of remedies and coaching, comparing paintings stations, and fighting and documenting the evolution of occupational problems of the neuromuscular system.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Muscle Innervation Zones: Understanding Surface Electromyography and Its Applications
The fiber, its NMJ, and the two propagating depolarized areas are shown in Fig. 7a (for simplicity, the tripoles are not shown), and the surface of the skin and the array of detectors (electrodes) in Fig. 7b. The amplifiers are not illustrated, for reasons of simplicity. Note that the fiber is parallel to the skin surface and to the electrode array. 7c shows the monopolar signals detected by each electrode with respect to a remote reference assumed to be at zero potential. The fiber is about 15 cm long and there are 16 electrodes equally spaced, with an inter-electrode distance of 1 cm.
Consider now the grid of detectors shown in Fig. 11c and let us label the single pixels with the row subscript followed by the column subscript so that the pixel in the upper left corner has a potential V1,1, that in the upper right corner V1,5, that in the lower left cor- 19 ner V13,1 and that in the lower right corner V13,5. Consider the difference, in the column direction V1,2 – V2,2 (black circles). This is similar to VC = VA – VB in Fig. 5d and is referred to as a longitudinal differential recording.
11c and let us label the single pixels with the row subscript followed by the column subscript so that the pixel in the upper left corner has a potential V1,1, that in the upper right corner V1,5, that in the lower left cor- 19 ner V13,1 and that in the lower right corner V13,5. Consider the difference, in the column direction V1,2 – V2,2 (black circles). This is similar to VC = VA – VB in Fig. 5d and is referred to as a longitudinal differential recording. This recording modality may be extended along the column, as in Fig.