By Olga Petre-Quadens
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Extra resources for Basic Sleep Mechanisms
1 msec pulse duration; 300/sec, threshold voltage for arrest of pecking movements). The trains had a repetition rate of ι/sec and lasted for 10 sec, after 10 sec of rest, stimulation was repeated. After four or five applications of these grouped stimulations, in any case always within 2 min, the pigeon fell asleep (Fig. 3). This technique recalls Hess's method for producing sleep in the cat, although the time parameters of the stimulations are altogether different. It should be noted, particularly, that the result was obtained very rapidly, after a few trains.
We are concerned only with the spontaneous alternation between sleep and wakefulness, and the experiments based on sleep deprivation and of reticular or diencephalic stimulation (see Jouvet, 1972 for the wide literature) will not be discussed. In fact, conditions giving rise to intense arousal might desynchronize the EEG patterns of the isolated cerebrum through humoral mechanisms. Villabianca (1962,1965) reported occasional desynchronization when the animal was submitted to maneuvers involving strong sensory stimulations.
These molecules would be taken u p either (1) by the degenerated NA terminals (an unlikely hypothesis) and by the endings of sprouting catecholinergic axons or (2) by the perikarya of noradrenergic neurons lying above this transections. 2 In both cases the precursor 2 See Jouvet (1972) for references. 26 Giuseppe Moruzzi Δ *****