By Rodney J. Y. Ho
Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals: reworking Proteins and Genes into medications defines biotechnology from the point of view of prescribed drugs. the 1st part makes a speciality of the method of reworking a biologic macromolecule right into a healing agent, whereas the second one part presents a quick evaluate of every category of macromolecule with recognize to physiological position and scientific program. extra aspect is additionally supplied within the moment part for every FDA licensed, recombinantly derived biopharmaceutical for every classification of macromolecule. the ultimate part seems to be to the longer term and the hot advances that would improve our skill to improve new macromolecules into potent biopharmaceuticals. This final part discusses a number of drug supply suggestions whereas additionally describing gene and phone treatment recommendations.
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Extra info for Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals: Transforming Proteins and Genes into Drugs
Recent studies implicate the proton-driven peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 as the main route of cellular uptake of small peptides and peptide-like drugs from the glomerular filtrates . These high-affinity transport proteins seem to exhibit selective uptake of di- and tripeptides, which implicates their role in renal amino acid homeostasis . For both mechanisms, glomerular filtration is the dominant, rate-limiting step, as subsequent degradation processes are not saturable under physiologic conditions [13, 76].
0 mg/kg (n = 3), and 10 mg/kg (n = 8) in rats (from ). 6 Interspecies Scaling Peptides and proteins exhibit distinct species specificity with regard to structure and activity. Peptides and proteins with identical physiological function may have different amino acid sequences in different species, and may have no activity or be even immunogenic if used in a different species. The extrapolation of animal data to predict pharmacokinetic parameters by allometric scaling is an often-used tool in drug development, with multiple approaches available at variable success rates [99–101].
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