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By Michael Zimmermann

This quantity reviews the proof that, at specific moments of their background and in sure features in their doctrines, the traditions of Buddhism, like different non secular traditions, have actively or passively promoted - and should proceed to advertise - violent modes of habit or structural violence. The articles during this quantity hide a huge spectrum of the Buddhist global in time period of areas and sessions. They take care of facets of violence beginning in India prior to the typical period and varying to the aid of jap militarism through Buddhist leaders a long way into the twentieth century.

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The Theravada monk and scholar Walpola Rahula, who may also be regarded as an "Engaged Buddhist," concedes that self-immolations like those of Thich Quang Duc are heroic acts, but he stresses that they are not in accord with the Buddha's original teaching. Nevertheless, even Rahula regards killing oneself as being better than killing others. See Walpola Rahula, "Self-Cremation in Mahayana Buddhism," in Zen and the Taming of the Bull: Towards the Definition of Buddhist Thought, ed. idem (London: Gordon Fraser, 1978), 114.

49 Still another group of arhats has, according to the Sarvastivadins, a similar ability to one ascribed to the Buddha: They can shorten their natural span of life by a special kind of supernatural power. "so 47 For details see Damien Keown, "Attitudes to Euthanasia in the Vinaya and Commentary," Journal of Buddhist Ethics 6 (1999): 267-8. 319c8-10. 71Oa20-c6; my attention has been drawn to this source by an unpublished lecture on Buddhism and violence held by Lambert Schmithausen. 656cl5-8. 39 Martin Delhey In view of this obviously quite positive attitude towards religious suicide, it seems to be impossible that the Sarvastivadins regarded ' suicide as being intrinsically wrong from the standpoint of morality, since the arhat is depicted as a man who has become virtually incapable of committing deeds that are morally wrong.

Thanks to a good deed performed in a former life as proof of his view. Filliozat's interpretation cannot be 61 62 43 Martin Delhey Speyer, who cites it as an example of the fact that the widespread Indian belief according to which one can detennine one's own future destiny, by the thoughts and wishes at the hour of death can playa major role in the decision to commit suicide. 64 The story of the buffal0 65 may serve as a last example drawn from the Avadiinasataka. During the Buddha's lifetime there was a very strong and extraordinarily malicious buffalo, which used to hunt down any man he scented.

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